Tenggarong And The Legend Of Kutai Kartanegara

Tenggarong

Tenggarong is a city district which become the capital of regency of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan, and it has 13 groups of Kelurahan.

Dated back from the ancient history of Indonesia, Kutai Kingdom was the oldest kingdom in Indonesia. It prooved by the discovery of seven inscriptions written on yupa (stone monument) which was written in Sanskrit using Pallawa letter. Based on its palaeography, the writing may arise from the 5th century AD.

From the inscription it was mentioned the existence of a kingdom under the leadership of the King Mulawarman, son of King Aswawarman, grandson of Maharaja Kudungga. The Kingdom was governed by this Mulawarman named Kutai Martadipura, located across the town in Muara Kaman.

In the early 13th century, there was a new kingdom in Tepian Batu or Kutai Lama named Kutai Kertanegara Kingdom with the first king of Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti (1300-1325).

With the existence of two kingdoms in the area of the Mahakam River is certainly cause friction between them. In the 16th century there was war between the two Kutai kingdoms. Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom under the king of Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa finally succeeded in conquering the kingdom of Kutai Martadipura. The king then called his kingdom into Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura.

In the 17th century Islam was welcomed by the Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom Furthermore, many Islamic names eventually used in the names of the king and royal family member of Parliament. The term king was replaced with the title of Sultan. Sultan who first used the name of Islam was the Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris (1735-1778).

In 1844, two merchant ships bt the lead of James Erskine Murray’s leadership, from the United Kingdom entering Tenggarong. Murray came to the Kutai for trade and ask for land to establish a trade post and the exclusive right to run a steam vessel in the waters of the Mahakam. But Sultan A.M. Salehuddin allowed Murray to trade only in Samarinda area only. Murray was not happy with this Sultan’s bid. After several days in the waters of Tenggarong, Murray fired the cannon towards the palace and returned by the troops of the kingdom of Kutai. The battle was unavoidable. Murray led the fleet finally defeated and fled toward the sea. Five people were injured and three people died from the fleet of Murray, and Murray himself was among those killed.

After the war, The Dutch colonial had heard about this war and finally take a control among those conflict. On October 11, 1844, Sultan A.M. Salehuddin must sign an agreement with the Dutch government declared that the Sultan acknowledged the Dutch East Indies and abide the government of Dutch East Indies in Kalimantan, which is represented by a resident who is domiciled in Banjarmasin.

In 1863, Kutai Kertanegara Kingdom entered into an agreement with the Dutch. In the agreement it was agreed that the kingdom of Kutai Kertanegara became part of the Netherlands East Indies.

Year 1888, the first coal mines opened in Batu Panggal in Kutai by a Dutch mining engineer, JH Menten. Menten also laid the foundation for the first oil exploitation in the area of Kutai. The prosperity of Kutai region seems more real. The royalty for the exploitation of natural resources in Kutai given to Sultan Sulaiman.

In 1907, the first Catholic mission was established in Laham. A year later, the upstream Mahakam area was handed over to Dutch with compensation amounting to 12 990 Gulden per year to the Sultan Kutai Kartanegara.

Sultan Alimuddin only enthroned within 11 years, he died in 1910. Because the crown prince at that time, Aji Kaget, still immature, the reins of the Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara government then held by the Board of Trustees led by Aji Pangeran Mangkunegoro.

On November 14, 1920, Aji Kaget was crowned as Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom with the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikshit.

Since the early 20th century, The economic of Kutai was grew very rapidly as a result of incorporation Borneo-Sumatra Trade Co. In those years, the capital of Kutai grew steadily through the surplus generated each year. Until 1924, the Kutai already has funds amount to 3.28 million Gulden – a fantastic amount for the period.

When the Japanese occupied the area of Kutai in 1942, the Sultan of Kutai must be obey to the Tenno Heika, Emperor of Japan. Emperor of Japan gave the Sultan an honorary degree of Koo, with the royal name of Kooti.

Indonesian independence in 1945. Two years later, the Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara with the status of the Federation into the unoccupied area of East Kalimantan, together with other regions such as the Sultanate of Bulungan, Sambaliung, Mount Tabur and Sand by forming a Council of the Sultanate. Then on December 27, 1949 entry in the United States of Indonesia

Those historical time lines can be found in Museum Mulawarman, this building is the former palace of the Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara which was built in 1936. Relating the histories that build the Tenggarong city until this day make those contribution become attractive objects to be visit. After, Mulawarman museum, there is Wood Museum, which is show the various kind of wood from Kalimantan. There is also Panji Sukarame reservoir, Pancasila monument, Pondok Labu, Kumala Island, Brubus Village, Munung Lake, Semayang Lake and many more.

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