The Flora and Fauna
British naturalist A. R. Wallace (1823-1931) postulated an
imaginary line (named after him Walace's Line) as the dividing
line between Asiatic and Australian fauna. It passes between Bali
and Lombok islands between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, then continues
south of the Philippines and north of Hawaii.
This theory probably explains the presence of species of fauna familiar
to both Asia and Australia found in Indonesia. However, there are
species indigenous to Indonesia, like the "orang utan"
apes of Sumatra and Kalimantan, the giant "komodo" lizards
which are the only ones of their kind in the world today roaming
free on the island of Komodo; the one homed rhinoceros of Java,
the wild "banteng" oxen, tigers and many other species
which are now protected in wildlife reserves.
The flora of Indonesia ranges from the tiny orchid to the giant
"Rafflesia" plant which has a bloom almost a metre (3.2
feet) in diameter the largest flower in the world and many other
species of plant life which can be seen at the Bogor Botanical Gardens.
Agricultural produce include rubber, coconut, coffee, tea, cocoa,
corn, spices, kapok, tobacco, rice, etc. and an abundance of vegetable
and fruit. Indonesia has some of the richest timber resources in
the world and the largest concentration of tropical hardwoods. The
total area of statecontrolled forests is approximately 12,9 million
hectares. Meranti constitues about 56% of the entire timber export.
Other varieties include ramin, agathis, teak, pinewood and a range
of other timber is smaller quantity, rattan and bamboo.